Garlic is a very useful and popular crop that grows every gardener. The process of obtaining a rich harvest and planting in the spring in open ground is quite simple, and even a beginner can cope with it, the main thing is to follow all the rules.
The recommendations concerning planting will be especially important, because the quantity and quality of the spicy heads obtained will depend on it.
With the help of step-by-step instructions to plant and grow garlic heads in the country house is not difficult in the Moscow region, and in Belarus and even in Transbaikalia.
The correct time for planting spring and winter garlic
Garlic can be planted in the fall and spring. The specific term will depend from the selected grade.
Experienced gardeners know that such a crop can be represented by winter or spring varieties. These two types differ among themselves not only in terms of planting, but also in many other characteristics. You can plant and transplant them at different times, the same applies to sowing seeds for seedlings.
To distinguish them from each other, you need to know the main external signs of each type:
- winter garlic is planted in the autumnIt is larger, the slices are covered with a hard shell. In the middle is a thick and solid rod, around which the teeth are located;
- spring is placed in open ground in early spring. These heads have a smaller size, their skin is soft and resembles parchment. The teeth are small, their arrangement is chaotic.
Specific planting dates will depend on the climatic conditions of the region:
- When conducting an autumn planting, it is worth remembering that by the time the first frosts appear at the beginning of winter, the teeth should have time to form a powerful root system; on this process, on average, it takes 3-4 weeks. Based on this, all work should be carried out a month before the onset of frost, that is, late September-early October;
- Spring planting is carried out immediately after the winter snow cover has come down, and the garden ground warms up to +6 degrees. Depending on the specific region, this may be April or early May.
The advantages of autumn and spring planting heads
Making a choice at what time to plant garlic you need to think about what depends on it not only the process of work, but also yield characteristics, how it will rise and whether it is not necessary to have a transplant in the summer.The future harvest depends on the time of planting.
|Winter garlic||Spring garlic|
|The taste of spring garlic is less saturated, and the heads and teeth are small in size compared with winter varieties||Winter garlic boasts large teeth that are easy to clean before cooking and bright spicy flavor.|
|Spring garlic ripens long enough, the yield of varieties of this type remains at a low level||Winter garlic ripens one month earlier than spring, therefore fresh teeth can be used in summer, moreover, the yield of this type is much higher|
|Spring garlic is able to maintain its freshness for up to 12 months||Winter garlic stored for only 3-4 months|
|Spring planting ensures a friendly emergence and safe plant growth||When carrying out the autumn planting, it should be borne in mind that there is always the risk of an earlier onset of frosts or of too much precipitation that can destroy the planting.|
|Caring for spring garlic, it is necessary to take care of sufficient watering during the formation of teeth||Winter varieties are formed using ground moisture|
|Spring varieties of garlic are not afraid of common diseases and pests||Autumn varieties are most defenseless in front of various ailments.|
The choice of planting dates and the type of vegetable being grown will depend on the cultivation objectives. Experienced gardeners recommend planting beds and winter and spring plants.Gardeners recommend planting other varieties on the beds
Cultivation technology and features of sowing seeds in the country
Each term of landing has the individual features concerning work. But there are also general rules that should be followed regardless of the time factor:
- Before planting a vegetable it must be calibrate, that is, to remove too small and somewhat diseased heads;
- The most common mistake that many gardeners make is planting winter in the spring. In this case, you can get a harvest, but it will not be as tasty and large as during the autumn planting;
- In order to get a guaranteed harvest should be purchased zoned varieties. Also it is necessary to study in advance all the characteristics, technology, how to sow and needs;
- Once in 3 years you need to spend variety rejuvenation, that is, instead of the teeth, the bulblets will be used as the planting material, of which single-teeth mature in the first season. The resulting crop is used for planting the next year. As a result of such works, garlic is updated;
- In order to collect high-quality harvest can not miss the deadlines. You can identify them by the arrow that should burst. Bulbs should also form;
- For a richer harvest, garlic feathers should be cut off in time.
In the fall, one should not plant the teeth too early so that they do not sprout prematurely, in the spring they cannot be delayed with planting, because then the heads may not have time to mature before the onset of cold weather.
Rules for planting garlic in open ground
In order for cultivation to end with success, it is necessary to properly conduct work on planting. It is also very important to properly care for the landings and timely perform the necessary work.
Preparing the seedlings
In order to get friendly shoots that will later bring a good harvest you need to work hard and properly handle planting material:
- Well-dried garlic heads are divided into teeth, without damaging the dry scales;
- Then spend calibration, selecting large and healthy slices;
- Before spring planting, the teeth can be stimulated to a more rapid emergence of the roots, for this planting material wrapped in a damp cloth and refrigerated for several days;
- Before you land the teeth in the ground they must be prepared.
There are three ways to process:
- Slices for 10-12 hours soaked in warm water;
- For these purposes, table salt is also well suited, which is diluted in water (3 tablespoons per 5 liters). This procedure is carried out for several minutes;
- Another way would be chemicals that have a stimulating effect.
- The last important procedure will be disinfection. For this, the teeth are immersed for 1-2 minutes in a solution of copper sulphate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
Site selection and soil preparation
Garlic is quite capricious about the choice of soil and places for planting. Preparing the site, you should remember all the preferences of this culture:
- in the best way the vegetable takes root on loamy and chernozem soils with neutral acidity;
- the place should be sunny and open;
- It is not recommended to plant garlic where onions, potatoes and tomatoes grew before it. Cabbage, legumes, zucchini and cucumbers are considered desirable predecessors.
During the spring planting, soil preparation is carried out in the autumn, and in the autumn one month before the work. This procedure includes deep digging, loosening, removal of weeds and stones.
In order to balance the composition of the soil, clay and sandy soil is diluted with peat, and peat is diluted with loam.Clay and sandy soils diluted with peat
In order to get a rich harvest, before planting the soil you need to enrich. The following fertilizers are applied to one square meter of soil:
- 1 bucket of humus or rotted manure;
- 1 compost bucket;
- 1 cup dolomite flour;
- 1 tablespoon of superphosphate;
- 1 tablespoon nitrofoski.
The final part will be decontamination of plantings, during which the beds are watered with copper sulphate or a solution of potassium permanganate. Experienced gardeners recommend covering the ridge with a film until the work is done.
Step by step instructions and how much depth to plant
Vegetable planted in rows, the distance between which should be equal 20-25 centimeters. The distance between the individual teeth will depend on their size, on average, this figure is 10 centimeters.
Teeth deepened strictly upright. In spring, the embedment depth will be 5-6 centimeters. In the autumn, this figure should be increased to 10 centimeters. This is necessary in order to protect the planting material from freezing.
Garlic care after planting will be to timely loosening and cleaning the soil from weeds. Also, do not forget about watering. During the growing season, the application of moisture should be abundant.
Watering is reduced to a moderate size when the formation of fruits begins, because with an excess of moisture, garlic can be susceptible to various diseases. In rainy weather, watering should be reduced. Moisture injection is stopped 2 weeks before harvest.
In addition to watering garlic needs to make regular feeding:
- 1 time in 10 days soil is watered with a solution of phosphate and potash fertilizers;
- At the beginning of the growing season and after the formation of the head of the plant fertilized infusion of mullein or chicken manure. 1 kilogram of fertilizer is diluted in 10 liters of water and infused for several days. After fermentation, 1 liter of top dressing is diluted with 10 liters of water.
How to transplant in the spring garlic planted before winter
It often happens that after the autumn planting of garlic gardener's plans change dramatically and the beds have to be transplanted to a new place. Many sources do not recommend this procedure, because it can damage the root system of plants and destroy them.
But if the work is necessary, then landing transfer together with a big earthy clod. In this case, the losses will be minimal, but in any case, one should expect a smaller crop.
Garlic can be planted in spring and autumn. Specific deadlines will depend on the desired result. The key to successful work will be compliance with all the above rules.