At all times, the cultivation of crops was one of the most important branches of any state. Therefore, the process of growing potatoes is given great importance. Quality depends on this, which includes taste, the content of nutrients and vitamins, the shelf life.
Growing potatoes: ways
Potatoes in bags, boxes or barrels
- In bags
- In a barrel
- In the box
The technology is pretty simple:
- Previously, the bottom of the tank is removed, and holes are made on the sides for the passage of oxygen.
- Capacity without bottom is put on the ground. Then go to the bottom of the tank compost 20 cm thick.
- Tubers fall on the compost and are covered with fertile soil.
- After the potato has sprouted and the length of the shoots has reached 5 centimeters, they must be filled almost completely with a layer of soil. This should be done until the container is full. In this interval, we should not forget about watering and fertilizing.
In the same way you can grow potatoes in barrows, tower, trash bin and pit.
New method: under agrofibre or cardboard
In early spring, waiting for the top layer of soil to warm up. At this point, you can make the planting of tubers.Under the agrofiber
For so that the potatoes were early, the tubers are germinated in advance.
- To do this, they are placed in 2 - 3 layers in a cool room at a temperature of 10-15 degrees Celsius. Excess temperature threatens to a strong stretching of the shoots, which will affect the decrease in yield.
- The emergence of sprouts in 1 - 2 centimeters, will significantly reduce the time for obtaining new potatoes.
- Germinated tubers soott 25 centimeters apart, and 50 -60 centimeters between the rows.
You can also place the tubers not only in a row, but also in a checkerboard pattern. This allows the bushes to grow better, as they do not obscure and do not interfere with each other. Then we cover with agrofibre or a cardboard.
Agrofibre passes moisture and air well, and in the cardboard it is necessary to make holes for ventilation. Agrofibre and cardboard help to survive the shoots of frost, and when the threat passes them, covering material can be removed. In this way, you can get a healthy and tasty young crop.
In the ridges
The meaning of this method of cultivation is very simple.
In this case, much more tubers are formed. Productivity increases. This method is widespread in the Netherlands and is called the Dutch method.
On high ridges
The meaning of this method of growing similar to the method of growing in barrels, bags, boxes and combs. Since the volume of soil for the root system of potatoes is more than usual, it begins to grow well. Thus, abundant tuber buildup occurs.
When laying high ridges on the bottom of the bed go humus or foliage, as well as dry branches of trees. In the process of decomposition of these materials, they will release heat and nutrients. If you cover the ridge, you can also get an early harvest.On ridges
The meaning of growing according to Mitlayder is to create long and narrow beds for plants. In this case, a rather large space for culture is created.
Plants get the maximum amount of sunlight, and, accordingly, emit more nutrients for themselves through the process of photosynthesis. therefore plant root system develops well, and in this case, the potato grows larger tubers. And their number increases.By mitlider
Under the straw
For this you need so that the soil was loose and wet enough:
- Tubers are stacked in the hole or just on the ground, in rows, or in a checkerboard pattern.
- Then the tubers are covered with a thick layer of straw or hay. Thickness is about 7-10 centimeters. Straw well passes air to tubers, and also well passes moisture. Therefore, this material helps to grow well and develop both the root system and the bush itself.
- Over time, a layer of straw will settle. Therefore it is necessary to add a layer of straw.
In the same way is grown potatoes under moss. The effect is the same. Good air permeability, moisture. In addition, the moss not only passes moisture well, but also holds it. This is one of the advantages of this method of cultivation.
The meaning of growing from seed is that over time, planting material loses its original performance and brings less and less yield each year.
Besides planting material is able to accumulate disease. But if you grow potatoes from seed, it will help return the potato to its former harvest. Seeds are collected from the fruit, which remains after flowering bush.
Sowing is done in advance so that when the soil is warmed, the seedlings are ready for planting. Care is the same as for ordinary bushes.
An important point in the harvest of such potatoes. You need to choose the bushes with the best tubers. Thus, you can provide yourself with a constant rich and tasty harvest.Seeds help avoid diseases transmitted with planting material.
Under the film
This method is similar to growing under agrofibre, only the film does not allow air and moisture, only saves. But this promotes early harvest. As soon as the soil is warmed, germinated potato tubers are planted in the soil, and covered with a film on top.
The film allows you to transfer frosts, as well as provides moisture culture for a long time. This allows you to get not only an early harvest, but also its increase due to the creation of a longer growing season.Potatoes under the film
By the method of Gulich: in kobtsah
When the length of the shoots reaches 5-8 cm, sprinkle them with soil. And this must be done until the potatoes form several tiers. In the process of growth do not forget about the timely watering and fertilizing.
Thus, using this method you can get up to 16 kilograms of a crop from a single tuber.
According to the method of Mikhailov
The meaning of this method is the same as that of Gulich. The fossa is made, in which the humus is placed. Then tuber sits and is covered with a layer of soil. When the tuber shoots, 4 of them are left to grow vertically, and the rest are tied to pegs and placed in the form of rays in a circle.The result of cultivation by the method of Mikhailov
As the shoots growboth vertical and horizontal sprinkled with soil. Productivity increases markedly. With proper compliance, you can get from 14 to 16 kilograms.
Table 1. Ways to grow potatoes.
|Traditional ways||In the ridges (Dutch method)|
|New ways||On high beds|
under agrofibre or cardboard
|Unusual ways||Gulich method (in kobtsah)|
the way Mikhailov
|Growing methods for small areas||In a barrel|
under the film
in the mounds
in the tower
In the box
trash or mat
in the pit
in the straw
under the moss
young from the box
in the box
Preparation and germination of tubers before planting
How to choose planting material
The variety that will be cultivated on the field should be zonedThis will allow you to be confident in the adaptability of the potato to these growing conditions. It is important to know the maturation information in order to provide proper care.
The soil should be plowed in autumn, this will accumulate moisture. The soil composition of the soil is desirable loam with the content of humus. If the soil is solid, then it needs to be burst and add organic matter.
Distance between tubers at planting
If planting potatoes is trench, then the distance between rows is 60 - 70 cm. The distance between tubers is 30 - 40 cm. When planting potatoes in holes, the distance does not change.
Timing and depth of landing
The planting time of potatoes depends on the temperature of the soil. Its temperature should be at least 5 degrees Celsius. Planting depth is about 10 cm.
Irrigation carried out of necessity. If during the summer there was enough rainfall, and the soil most of the time was wet, then watering is not required.Try not to overflow the soil during watering.
In the dry summer and spring, the main irrigation is carried out in the period of germination, growth and flowering of the shoots. If August is dry, watering is also necessary.
The most important role of hilling is to reduce the temperature around the tubers. The tuber should be in the space where the temperature is a few degrees lower than the stem. If hilling does not occur, the tuber begins to re-germinate, consuming energy and nutrients intended for the development of the plant.
Spud need to soil in cloudy weather, after rain to avoid evaporation of moisture. Hilling is also carried out on compacted soils where gas exchange is poorly performed.Hilling is a useful and necessary procedure for good growth of tubers.
Exist complex mineral fertilizerswhich follow to bring along with the landing. Mineral fertilizers increase germination, disease resistance and increase yield.
Bring, as a rule, potassium, phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers, the number and frequency of application is determined by the composition of the soil and the needs of the crop. Better in the spring to fertilize directly into the hole. As a feed you can use ash.
Organic fertilizer always favorably affect the yield. Horse manure is the most useful and high-quality version of organic fertilizers.
- Complex mineral fertilizer
- Phosphoric fertilizer
- Organic fertilizer
Mulching is always necessary, it increases the content of organic matter, and therefore nutrients, retains soil moisture. Plant residues are always best suited for mulching at any time.
Same mulching is done with straw and sawdust, but this option is suitable only if the soil is well heated, and in the yard on June 15. In the spring straw and sawdust do not mulch, they reflect the sun's rays, preventing the soil from warming. Sawdust acidifies the soil.Straw Mulching Example
Diseases and pests of potatoes
The extermination of diseases and pests by chemical means is carried out if the economic threshold of harmfulness is exceeded. The main pest is Colorado beetle. If there is not a lot of it, then you can collect manually, the most important thing is to destroy the larvae.
Wireworm harms potato tubers, when ammonia fertilizers are applied, its population decreases.
Potato is often affected different types of nematode. To fight the nematode there are no safe chemicals. It is recommended to change the soil, if possible.
If growing in large areas, then urea must be applied to the soil, and then an infusion of potato young residues. This process is carried out in early spring, so that the nematode larvae, sensing the potato food, can go out and die from the lack of food.
For prevention make bird droppings in the soil.
- Colorado beetle
- Roots infected with a nematode
When harvesting, it is important to select seed material for further cultivation.
Start harvesting potatoes recommended during yellowing tops. If you start harvesting earlier, the potatoes will be worse stored.
Potatoes are one of the main products of traditional cuisine. Culture does not require special care. It is important to know only certain subtleties. And with the help of the methods and methods described above, you can simply grow abundant and healthy harvest High Quality.